Reinforcement vs Punishment (7 pts)   Notice how many ways operant conditioning occurs in our everyday lives.

For each example below identify the type of consequence. Remember, in each case a consequence is something which follows a behavior. Consequences may increase or decrease the likelihood (in the future) of the behavior that they follow. For example:
PR (positive reinforcement) - something good is presented, which encourages the behavior in the future
NR (negative reinforcement) - something bad is removed or avoided, which encourages the occurrance of the behavior.
PP (positive punishment) - something bad is presented, which discourages the behavior in the future.
NP (negative punishment) - something good is removed, which discourages the behavior in the future.

____ Police stop drivers and give them a prize if their seatbelts are buckled; seat belt use increases in town.

____ A basketball player who commits a flagrant foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later games.

____ A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors after that.

____ The annoying child jumps up and down, hand raised, yelling "Me, me, me!" until the teacher calls on her.
           The child jumps and yells even more in the future.

____ After a good workout in physical therapy, hospital patients are given ice cream sundaes. They work harder in later sessions.

____ Homeowners who re-cycle get to deduct 5% from their utility bill. Recycling increases after this program begins.

____ After completing an Alcohol Education Program, the suspension of your driver's license is lifted.
           More DWI drivers now complete the program.

____ After Jodi flirted with someone else at the party, her boyfriend stopped talking to her. Jodi didn't flirt at the next party.

____ The employee of the month gets a reserved parking space. Employees now work harder.

____ A dog is banished to his doghouse after soiling the living room carpet. The dog has fewer accidents after that.

____ A professor allows those students with A averages in the class to skip the final exam. Students work harder for As.

____ You clean up your stuff more regularly now to avoid your roommate's (or mother's) nagging.

____ You've learned a particular response in your videogame gets rid of one of the "bad guys".
           You now always respond that way at the appropriate time.

____ Making just the right facial expression softens up your sweetie when he/she is mad at you.
          You make that facial expression more often now .

Schedules of Reinforcement - for each example below identify the schedule of reinforcement (6 pts)

Remember: Consequences don't always follow every occurrance of a behavior. Some commom
contingencies or ways of "scheduling" when a reinforcement is available are:
FR (fixed ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a certain fixed number of correct response have occurred
VR (variable ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a variable (unpredictable) number of responses hsve occurred
FI (fixed interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response that occurs after a specific interval of time has passed
VI (variable interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response occurring after a variable interval of time has passed

____ You get paid once every two weeks.

____ A worker is paid $2 for every 100 envelopes stuffed.

____ Slot machines at casinos payoff after a variable number of plays.

____ Students are released from class when the end-of-period bell rings.

____ A fly fisherman casts and reels back his line several times before catching a fish.

____ You get a nickel for every pop can that you return.

____ Every time you buy a sandwich you get your card punched; after 10 punches you get a free sandwich.

____ Sometimes the mail is delivered at 1:00, sometimes closer to 2:00.

____ A car salesman who gets a commission on each sale.

____ Getting a small increase in your hourly wage every 6 months.

____ Every so often you like to surprise your special other with something nice.

____ Matt gets a hit about once every 3 times he is at bat (sometimes a little more often, sometimes less).