Intro to Psych - Mini-History of Psychology, or
 "Wilhelm and Sigmund's Excellent Adventure!"

Wilhelm Wundt
Considered the founder of the discipline of psychology 

1st Psych lab - 1879 in Leipzig, Germany

Studied conscious experience by examining its structure or components parts (sensations, feelings) using individuals who were trained in introspection. This "school of psychology" became known as structuralism.

William James
Instrumental in establishing psychology in the U.S.

Published critical text Principles of Psychology in 1890

Instead of focusing on the structure of the mind, James stressed studying the adaptive functions of behavior; this was the basis of a new school of thought called functionalism.

John Watson        B. F. Skinner
John Watson (1924) argued that psychologists, as scientists, should stick to studying observable behavior (not the mind) such as how behavior changes with learning. This new approach or school of psychology known as behaviorism was also championed by B.F. Skinner and dominated American psychology for nearly 50 years.

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud focused on unconscious causes of behavior This is known as the psychoanalytic approach or school of thought and the  techniques Freud used to try to reveal the hidden causes of behavior became known as psychoanalysis.

Led by Max Wertheimer (no that's not Max to the left), yet another group of psychologists focused on perceptual organization and processing. The "credo" of this school of psychology - Gestalt psychology- is "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts."
Carl Rogers Maslow 
Carl Rogers didn't think that either behaviorism or psychoanalysis took into account that which he considered best about humans: free-will and ability to make choices. He and Maslow, who emphasized every person's potential for self-development, are 2 key representatives of humanism or humanistic psychology.