the anatomy and function of the corpus callosum
review the relationship between the right & left visual fields and the 2 hemispheres
What is a seizure? When do seizures qualify as epilepsy?
2 main types or categories of epilepsy and their causes
why cutting the corpus callosum would be expected to limit the spread of focal seizures
How are split brain patients tested by researchers?
What is meant by lateralization of function?
What kinds of results from split brain research support the notion of lateralization?
What functions each hemisphere is dominant for (make a detailed list for each)
Give an example or 2 of competition between the hemispheres after surgery
What is the relationship between handedness and lateralization?
What is the planum temporale? What right left differences have been noted here?
Name, locate and explain the function of the various parts of the language system of the brain
What happens if the frontal lobe portion of the language system is damaged and what are the symptoms?
What happens if the temporal lobe portion of the system is damaged and what are the symptoms?
what is the difference between an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland
what glands are in the endocrine system (particularly which ones relate to sexuality)
what is a hormone
what are the characteristics of steroid hormones and by what mechanisms do they affect cells
describe the relationship of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
describe the relationship of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary (how does it control the anterior pituitary?)
draw the chain of command (hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovaries or testes and write in what kind of hormones are released at each level (related to sexuality). Draw in the negative feedback loops as well. What actually provides the feedback signal?
What is meant when we say sex hormones have ORGANIZING effects?
How does a sex chromosome play a role in the very first step of sexual differentiation? (be specific)
Beyond that first step, what has the strongest influence on the remainder of sexual differentation? (be specific)
describe how one comes to have either male (wolffian) and/or female (mullerian) ducts
what is mullerian inhibiting hormone?
describe how one comes to have either male or female genitalia (or something in between)
what is dihydrotestosterone?
what do we mean by a sensitive period (or critical period)?
can you predict the effects of alterations in the early hormone environment (e.g. giving females androgens, removing androgens from males, giving huge doses of estrogens)
by what mechanism does testosterone appear to "masculinize" the brain of rats (and probably some other species too)
what is the role of alpha-fetoprotein (in this situation)
what is the sexually dimorphic nucleus? what is the analgous structure in humans?
give several behavioral and anatomical examples of how "sexual" differentiation affects more than sexual behavior and orientation
contrast "activational" effects (when they most often occur, how lasting they are) with organizational effect
How successful have doctors been at blocking sexual motivation by blocking the activational effects of hormones (e.g. in sex offenders)? How do the various drugs that affect sexual/reproductive function relate to the chain of command discussed earlier?
just as early hormones affected more than sexuality, adult levels of activational hormones relate to more than sexual behavior - give several examples
what is likely to happen to sexual differentation (and what might happen in terms of gender identity later on) is these cases?
XY male with a mutated or missing SRY gene
XX female who receive a SRY through a crossing over in here father's genetic material
XY male who lacks the gene which produces androgen receptors
XX female who is exposed to somewhat higher than normal levels of androgens in utero
XX female who is exposed to very high levels of androgens in utero
XX female who is exposed to very high levels of estrogens in utero
XY male with a defective gene for the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase
what biological factors would continue to influence the gender identity of the male child raised as a female after accidental removal of penis during circumcision?
what research findings support a role for each of the following in homosexual orientation:
early hormone (but not adult hormone) levels
stress during gestation